Colombia lies mostly in South America. It also includes the San Andrés y Providencia archipelago, located in the Caribbean in North America. The mainland is bordered by Panama and the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Peru and Ecuador to the southwest, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Country Profile

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Colombia lies on the eastern edge of the Ring of Fire, a tectonic belt containing two-thirds of the world’s volcanoes. Ninety percent of the planet’s earthquakes occur in the Ring of Fire, with regular occurrences in Colombia.

In addition to its mountainous center, Colombia’s landscape consists of deserts in the north, grasslands in the east, beaches along the northern and western coastlines, and dense jungle in the south, where part of the Amazon Rainforest lies. South America’s longest river, the Amazon River, flows through Colombia.

The majority of the country’s population lives in the interior, which is dominated by mountains and volcanoes. Some of the volcanoes in Colombia include Galeras, Nevado del Huila, and Nevado del Ruiz, all of which have erupted in the last four decades.

Colombia’s largest and capital city is Bogotá. Located in the center of the country, it is in the Andes mountain range.

The climate in Colombia is mostly tropical, with two main seasons: Rainy and dry. The rainy season usually runs from April through May and October through November. The dry season runs from December through January and July through August. Colombia also experiences an alpine climate in the mountains and an arid climate in the desert, as well as various other climates depending on topography.

Colombia operates under a republic with a separation of powers divided between the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of government. The head of the executive branch, the President, is the head of state and the head of government.

Colombia: Stats and Facts

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