Map of Africa with country flags
Africa is a continent surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean. It’s the world’s second-largest and second-most-populous continent after Asia.
The continent covers 20% of Earth’s land area and consists of 54 countries. Algeria is the largest African country in terms of land area. Africa contains various archipelagos, such as the Nightingale Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean and the Outer Islands (Coralline Seychelles) in the western Indian Ocean. 
Based on the United Nations geoscheme – a system of categorising the world’s continents, countries and territories – Africa is divided into five subregions: Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Southern Africa and Western Africa. The Sahara, the world’s largest hot desert, spans North Africa. The Savanna grasslands are spread over nearly half of the continent. Other distinct geographical regions in Africa include the Ethiopian Highlands, the Swahili Coast and the African Great Lakes.
Due to the sheer size of Africa, there are plenty of iconic landmarks and tourist attractions. Some of the most popular include Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania (the highest mountain in Africa), Victoria Falls in Zambia and Zimbabwe, and the Red Sea Reef off the coast of Egypt, Eritrea, and Sudan. The Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one that still exists today. 

Countries of Africa

CountryFlagPopulationWorld %UN SubregionCapital City
Flag of Benin
13,712,8280.17%Western AfricaPorto-Novo (official)
Cotonou (de facto)
Flag of Botswana
2,675,3520.03%Southern AfricaGaborone
Burkina Faso
Flag of Burkina Faso
23,251,4850.29%Western AfricaOuagadougou
Flag of Burundi
13,238,5590.16%Eastern AfricaBujumbura (de facto)
Gitega (de jure)
Cabo Verde
Flag of Cabo Verde
598,6820.01%Western AfricaPraia
Flag of Cameroon
28,647,2930.36%Middle AfricaYaoundé
Central African Republic
Flag of Central African Republic
5,742,3160.07%Middle AfricaBangui
Flag of Chad
18,278,5680.23%Middle AfricaN'Djamena
Flag of Comoros
852,0750.01%Eastern AfricaMoroni
Congo, Republic of the
Flag of Congo
6,106,8690.08%Middle AfricaBrazzaville
Côte d'Ivoire
Flag of Côte d'Ivoire
28,873,0340.36%Western Africa
Yamoussoukro (administrative)
Abidjan (de facto)
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Flag of Democratic Republic of Congo
102,262,8081.27%Middle AfricaKinshasa
Flag of Djibouti
1,136,4550.01%Eastern AfricaDjibouti
Flag of Egypt
112,716,5981.40%Northern AfricaCairo
Equatorial Guinea
Flag of Equatorial Guinea
1,714,6710.02%Middle AfricaMalabo
Flag of Eritrea
3,748,9020.05%Eastern AfricaAsmara
Flag of Eswatini
1,210,8220.02%Southern Africa
Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Mbabane (administrative)
Flag of Ethiopia
126,527,0600.16%Eastern AfricaAddis Ababa
Flag of Gabon
2,436,5660.03%Middle AfricaLibreville
Flag of Gambia
2,773,1680.03%Western AfricaBanjul
Flag of Ghana
34,121,9850.42%Western AfricaAccra
Flag of Guinea
14,190,6120.18%Western AfricaConakry
Flag of Guinea-Bissau
2,150,8420.03%Western AfricaBissau
Flag of Kenya
55,100,5860.68%Eastern AfricaNairobi
Flag of Lesotho
2,330,3180.03%Southern AfricaMaseru
Flag of Liberia
5,418,3760.07%Western AfricaMonrovia
Flag of Libya
6,888,3880.09%Northern AfricaTripoli
Flag of Madagascar
30,325,7320.38%Eastern AfricaAntananarivo
Flag of Malawi
20,931,7510.26%Eastern AfricaLilongwe
Flag of Mali
23,293,6980.29%Western AfricaBamako
Flag of Mauritania
4,862,9890.06%Western AfricaNouakchott
Flag of Mauritius
1,300,5570.02%Eastern AfricaPort Louis
Flag of Morocco
37,840,0440.47%Northern AfricaRabat
Flag of Mozambique
33,897,3540.42%Eastern AfricaMaputo
Flag of Namibia
2,604,1720.03%Southern AfricaWindhoek
Flag of Niger
27,202,8430.34%Western AfricaNiamey
Flag of Nigeria
223,804,6322.78%Western AfricaAbuja
Flag of Rwanda
14,094,6830.18%Eastern AfricaKigali
São Tomé and Príncipe
Flag of São Tomé and Príncipe
231,8560.00%Middle AfricaSão Tomé
Flag of Senegal
17,763,1630.22%Western AfricaDakar
Flag of Seychelles
107,6600.00%Eastern AfricaVictoria
Sierra Leone
Flag of Sierra Leone
8,791,0920.11%Western AfricaFreetown
Flag of Somalia
18,143,3780.23%Eastern AfricaMogadishu
South Africa
Flag of South Africa
60,414,4940.75%Southern AfricaBloemfontein (judicial)
Cape Town (legislative)
Pretoria (executive)
South Sudan
Flag of South Sudan
11,088,7960.14%Eastern AfricaJuba
Flag of Sudan
48,109,0060.60%Northern AfricaKhartoum
Flag of Tanzania
67,438,1060.84%Eastern AfricaDodoma
Flag of Togo
9,053,7990.11%Western AfricaLomé
Flag of Tunisia
12,458,2230.15%Northern AfricaTunis
Flag of Uganda
48,582,3340.60%Eastern AfricaKampala
Flag of Zambia
20,569,7370.26%Eastern AfricaLusaka
Flag of Zimbabwe
16,665,4090.21%Eastern AfricaHarare

Facts about Africa

Sovereign CountriesPopulationLand Area (km²)Population Density (/km²)World %

Largest Country

The largest country in Africa in terms of land area is Algeria. It covers 2,381,740 km² (919,595 square miles) of land.

Smallest Country

Africa’s smallest country in terms of land area is Seychelles, an island country and archipelagic state, which measures just 455 km² (176 sq mi). The Gambia (West Africa) is the smallest country in mainland Africa, which covers 10,120 km² (3,907 sq mi).

Largest Island

The largest island in Africa is Madagascar, a country in East Africa. The island measures 586,500 km² (226,449 mi²).

Longest River

Africa’s longest river is the Nile, which runs 6,650 kilometers (4,132 miles) through East Africa. The Nile is also the world’s longest river.

Highest Point

The highest mountain in Africa is Mount Kilimanjaro, which measures 5,895 meters (19,341 ft). The mountain is also the largest free-standing mountain rise in the world.

Largest Lake

Africa’s largest lake by area is Victoria, a freshwater lake with shorelines in Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. The lake covers an area of 59,940 km² (23,140 sq mi).

Country with the Longest Coastline

The island of Madagascar has the longest coastline in Africa, with a total length of 4,828 km (3,000 mi). Somalia has the longest coastline of any country on mainland Africa, with a total length of 3,025 km (1,880 mi).

Tallest Building

The tallest building in Africa is The Iconic Building in Cairo, Egypt. The supertall skyscraper was completed in 2023, measures 394 meters (1,292 ft) and has 77 floors.

Most Visited Country

In 2022, the continent of Africa was visited by 48 million people. 60% of this number visited Sub-Saharan Africa (which includes Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, and West Africa), while the remaining 40% visited North Africa.

Data Sources: