Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru, is a country and microstate in the Central Pacific. The island country is located in the Micronesia subregion of Oceania. Nauru lies approximately 300 kilometers (190 miles) from the island of Banaba of Kiribati and around 1,300 kilometers (810 miles) northeast of the Solomon Islands. With an area of just 21 km², Nauru is the world’s third-smallest country after Vatican City and Monaco.

Country Profile

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Yaren, a district in the south of the island, is the unofficial capital of Nauru. The island doesn’t have cities or an official capital city. The island has eight constituencies, each containing one or more districts. Ubenide is the largest constituency and contains four districts. The island is a democratic republic with a president who serves as the head of government and head of state.

Germany annexed Nauru in 1888 and incorporated it into the Marshall Islands Protectorate until 1919. The island was invaded by Australian troops in 1914 during the First World War and was under British control until 1920. Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom formed an agreement for phosphate mining on the island in the same year.

Australia was made a trustee of the island (with New Zealand and the UK as co-trustees) in 1923. Japan occupied Nauru for part of the Second World War. Australia, New Zealand, and the UK became UN trustees of the island in 1947. Nauru gained independence in 1968. 

Nauru has a hot and humid climate that typically experiences monsoon rains between November and February. There are no rivers or streams on the island, and inconsistent rainfall often leads to drought.

Nauru: Stats and Facts

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