Latvia is a Baltic country in Northern Europe. It is bordered by the other two Baltic countries: Estonia to the north and Lithuania to the south. It is also bordered by Belarus to the south and Russia to the east. Latvia has a long coastline on the Baltic Sea to the west. Riga — the country’s capital and largest city — is near the coast.

Country Profile

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In addition to a long coastline lined by white beaches and sand dunes, Latvia’s landscape consists of forests, farmland, swamps, lakes, rivers, hills, and low mountains. The country’s longest river is the Gauja, followed by the Daugava and the Ogre. Its highest point is Gaiziņkalns in the west-central region. Although the mountain is just over 300 meters high, it has been developed into a ski resort.

Latvia has four national parks: Gauja National Park in the north, Ķemeri National Park towards the west, Slītere National Park in the far west, and Rāzna National Park in the east.

Latvia’s climate is semi-continental, with mild summers that can be rainy and very cold winters. Summers tend to be cooler along the coast and warmer in the eastern regions, while winters are milder along the coast and harsher in the eastern regions. However, the temperature differences don’t vary too much due to the country’s small size and flat terrain. Latvia has four distinct seasons of equal length. These are winter, spring, summer, and fall. Snow is common during winter, which runs from mid-December through mid-March. Rain is frequent throughout the year and is distributed fairly evenly, though the coast receives the most rainfall.

Latvia is a parliamentary republic with a President as the head of the state and a Prime Minister as the head of the government. The President — who is elected by parliament — appoints the Prime Minister. However, their role is largely ceremonial.

Latvia: Stats and Facts

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