Finland is a country in Northern Europe. It is one of the Nordic countries, along with Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Åland. Finland shares land borders with Norway to the north, Russia to the east, and Sweden to the west. The Gulf of Finland lies to the south, and the Gulf of Bothnia is to the west, separating Finland from Estonia and Sweden. 

Country Profile

Finland is among the world’s northernmost countries. Its capital, Helsinki, is the second northernmost capital city in the world after Iceland’s capital, Reykjavík. Almost all of Finland’s northern province, Lapland, lies above the Arctic Circle.

Nicknamed the “Land of a Thousand Lakes,” Finland’s landscape consists of over 180,000 lakes. The Finnish Lakeland is the area with the most lakes, where the country’s largest lake, Saimaa, can be found. Much of Finland’s landscape is heavily forested, with little farmland. The terrain is largely flat, apart from the Scandinavian Mountains, which extend into the northwest of the country. Finland also has around 179,000 islands, many of which are located off the southwestern coast of the mainland.

Finland’s climate has both maritime and continental characteristics and varies depending on the region. There are four distinct seasons, but the weather can change quickly due to the country’s location east of the Atlantic Ocean and west of the Eurasian continent.

Finland is a parliamentary republic. It has a President who is the head of the state and the head of the armed forces, and a Prime Minister who is the head of the government. The President and Members of Parliament are elected by the public, and the Prime Minister is appointed by the President.

Finland: Stats and Facts