Mongolia is a landlocked country in Eastern Asia. It is surrounded by Russia to the north and China to the east, south, and west.

Country Profile

Official NameContinentSubregionCapital CityPopulationWorld Population %Land Area (km²)CurrencyCurrency Symbol
MongoliaAsiaEastern AsiaUlaanbaatar3,447,1560.04%1,553,556Mongolian tögrög

The country’s capital and largest city is Ulaanbaatar. The city is located in northeastern Mongolia, on the banks of the Tuul — the country’s third-longest river.

The longest river in Mongolia is the Orkhon. It flows for over 1,100 kilometers from its source in the Khangai mountain range in the center of the country until it meets the Selenga River.

Mongolia has three major mountain ranges: the Khangai Mountains, the Altai Mountains, and the Khentii Mountains. Burkhan Khaldun, in the Khentii Mountains, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is believed to be the birthplace and burial ground of Genghis Khan, who established the Mongol Empire in 1206 and ruled until his death in 1227. The Altai is the highest mountain range and is the location of the country’s highest point, Khüiten Peak in Tavan Bogd. While mountains dominate the north and west of the country, the south is covered by the Gobi Desert — the sixth-largest desert in the world.

Nicknamed the “Land of the Eternal Blue Sky”, Mongolia experiences more than 250 days of sunshine each year. Its climate is mostly continental, with short, warm summers and long, cold winters. Most of the country’s rainfall occurs during the summer months due to the Asian monsoon. Winds can be strong in the spring, bringing dust storms to the southern and central regions.

Mongolia is a semi-presidential republic with a directly elected President who appoints a Prime Minister to lead the government.

Mongolia: Stats and Facts

Official LanguageMain ReligionNational AnthemISO alpha-2ISO alpha-3Internet country domains (TLDs)Dialling CodeCoastline Length (km)Geographic coordinates (center point of country)Number of Time ZonesTime Zone(s)Daylight Savings Time?Driving SideGDP (PPP)GDP per capita (PPP)GDP (nominal)GDP per capita (nominal)
"Mongol ulsiin töriin duulal"
("National Anthem of Mongolia") (landlocked)46 00 N, 105 00 E2
UTC +07:00 — Provinces of Khovd, Uvs and Bayan-Ölgii
UTC +08:00 — Most of the country