Israel is a country in Western Asia. It shares borders with Lebanon and Syria to the north, Jordan and the West Bank to the east, Egypt to the south and west, and the Gaza Strip to the west. The Mediterranean Sea lies to the west of the country. The West Bank and the Gaza Strip are disputed territories.

Country Profile

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Israel’s seat of government is in the city of Jerusalem, which the country claims is its capital. However, its financial, economic, and technological hub is Tel Aviv, on the Mediterranean coastline.

As well as long stretches of sandy beaches, Israel’s landscape consists of deserts, mountains, valleys, and forests. The Negev Desert covers much of the south of the country. The center is dominated by a large fertile plain called the Jezreel Valley, and the north is largely mountainous, consisting of the Galilee mountainous region. Israel’s longest river is the Jordan River. It begins in the Golan Heights mountain range and flows south towards the Dead Sea along the country’s borders with Jordan, the West Bank, and Syria.

The highest peak is Mount Hermon (2,236 meters), which sits in territory captured by Israel during the Six Day War in 1967. The next highest peak, which is fully within Israel, is Mount Meron.

The climate of Israel varies depending on the region. The coastal areas typically experience a Mediterranean climate with long, hot summers and cool, wet winters. The southern Negev has a desert climate with very hot summers, mild winters, and little to no rainfall, while the northern Negev has a semi-arid climate with hot summers and cool winters. The mountainous regions can be cold and windy, receiving snowfall at high elevations.

Israel is a parliamentary democracy. The government is divided into the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, and the Prime Minister serves as the head. The President is the head of the state, although their duties are largely ceremonial.

Israel: Stats and Facts

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