Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is a country in Southern Asia. The landlocked country is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south, Uzbekistan to the north, and Iran to the west. It also borders Turkmenistan to the northwest, Tajikistan to the northeast, and China to the northeast and east.

Country Profile

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The capital of Afghanistan is Kabul, located high up in a valley in the Hindu Kush in the country’s eastern region. The city is divided into 22 municipal districts. 

Much of Afghanistan is covered in mountains and dry deserts. The highest mountain in the country is Mount Noshaq, in the northeast, which measures 7,492 meters. The Registan Desert in southeastern Afghanistan is the country’s largest desert.

Afghanistan has an arid continental climate. The winters in the central highlands and northeast are particularly harsh, while the southwestern Sistan Basin, eastern Jalalabad Basin, and northern Turkestan plains have extremely hot summers.

There is an abundance of natural resources in Afghanistan, including copper, lithium, and iron. Afghanistan also produces large amounts of cashmere, saffron, and cannabis resin. Over half of the country’s land is used for agriculture.

There are at least 40 languages in Afghanistan, although Dari and Pashto (both classed as official languages) are the most spoken. Other commonly spoken languages in the country include Uzbek, English, and Turkmen.

Afghanistan has an unstable government; the country has experienced several civil wars, coups, and violent power struggles over several hundred years. The country currently has a totalitarian emirate government that prohibits all other parties and is ruled by an emir (supreme leader).

Afghanistan: Stats and Facts

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