Ethiopia, officially called the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is an East African country in the Horn of Africa region. The country is bordered by Eritrea to the north and Djibouti to the northeast. Somalia borders Ethiopia to the south and southeast, while Kenya borders it to the south. Ethiopia is bordered by South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northeast.

Country Profile

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The country is Africa’s oldest independent nation; apart from a five-year occupation by Italy in the 20th century, Ethiopia has never been colonized. Instead, it served as an example of African independence during the country’s colonial period. In 1945, Ethiopia was one of the United Nations’ 51 founding member countries.

Ethiopia had an emperor from the 13th century until the monarchy was abolished in 1975. The emperor served as both head of state and head of government with complete executive, judicial, and legislative power. Ethiopia is now a federal parliamentary republic with a prime minister who serves as head of government and a president who serves as head of state.

Addis Ababa, a city in the central highlands, is the capital of Ethiopia. Other major cities in Ethiopia include Dire Dawa, Mek’ele, and Gondar. The country is extremely mountainous, with over 25 peaks that reach over 4,000 meters. Ethiopia’s highest peak is Ras Dashen in the Simien Mountains National Park, which is 4,543 meters high.

Ethiopia has a diverse climate, from a humid rainforest climate in the south and southwest to a dry desert-like climate in the north, northeast, and southeast. The country has three main seasons: a dry season (Bega) from October to January, a short rainy season (Belg) from February to May, and the primary rainy season (Kiremt) from June to September.

Ethiopia: Stats and Facts

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