Egypt is located in the northeast of Africa. The Mediterranean Sea lies to the north of the country, the Gaza Strip is to the northeast, the Red Sea is to the east, the country of Sudan is to the south, and Libya is to the west. Egypt is Africa’s third-most populous country after Nigeria and Ethiopia.

Country Profile

Official NameContinentSubregionCapital CityPopulationWorld Population %Land Area (km²)CurrencyCurrency Symbol
The Arab Republic of EgyptAfricaNorthern AfricaCairo112,716,5981.40%995,450Egyptian poundLE

The country has a remarkably long history, dating back to 6000-4000 BCE. Ancient Egypt is known as a cradle of civilization, having developed some of the world’s first writing systems (hieroglyphics) and making significant advancements in other fields like agriculture, architecture, religion, and politics.

The country’s capital, Cairo, is close to Ancient Egyptian sites such as the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The ancient cities of Heliopolis and Memphis are also in the vicinity. Egypt’s second-largest city is Alexandria, the location of the Lighthouse of Alexandria — another Ancient Wonder of the World. 

The world’s longest river, the Nile, runs through the entire country, from south to north, emptying into the Mediterranean Sea. Aside from the Nile Valley, Egypt’s landscape is largely desert. Part of the Sahara, the world’s largest hot desert, lies within Egypt.

Egypt’s climate is hot, sunny, and dry for most of the year. The country receives very little rainfall, and snow usually only falls on Mount Sinai and some of the northern coastal cities. In spring or early summer, a hot, dry wind called the Khamsin blows from the deserts in the south, bringing scorching sand and dust particles that increase the temperature in the rest of the country.

Egypt is a democratic republic. The President — who must be at least 40 years old and born to Egyptian parents — is the head of the state. The President appoints the Prime Minister as the head of the government.

Egypt: Stats and Facts

Official LanguageMain ReligionNational AnthemISO alpha-2ISO alpha-3Internet country domains (TLDs)Dialling CodeCoastline Length (km)Geographic coordinates (center point of country)Number of Time ZonesTime Zone(s)Daylight Savings Time?Driving SideGDP (PPP)GDP per capita (PPP)GDP (nominal)GDP per capita (nominal)
"Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
("My Country, My Country, My Country"),45027 00 N, 30 00 E1UTC +02:00Not observedright$1,917,089,000,000$17,786$357,825,000,000$3,320